Influence exerted by non-living organisms, i.e. by factors such as climate and chemical and physical properties of the soil. Decomposition products from previously living organisms can be of critical importance.
Attachment to a surface.
Species that has been introduced accidentally but does not yet have the ability to spread significantly, e.g. from ports and warehouse areas. Often temporary.
Shoot/bud formed from previously dormant tissue, often after external influence, e.g. cutting, pruning of older shoots. Adventivus (Latin) means something that breaks through.
One-year plant that can flower and set seed in the same year.
Plant that can produce seeds without fertilisation.
"Original plant" - species that has expanded its habitat due to activities in human cultivation, e.g. mowing, grazing (cf. synanthrope).
Plant introduced directly or indirectly by humans in the past.
Perfumed or fragranced.
Study of the interactions between an individual species and its surroundings.
Two-year plant. During the first year it forms a rosette. In the following year it develops a shoot that can flower and set seed and then normally die entirely.
Mass of mainly living plant material (expressed as fresh weight or dry weight).
Habitat for a particular group of plants, animals and other organisms (cf. growing site).
Individuals with a genetic composition that gives them similar appearance and behaviour.
Plants where the base molecule in the photosynthetic reaction contains 4 carbon (C) atoms instead of the 3 in C3-plants. C4 plants have an optimum temperature for growth that is approx 10 degrees higher than for C3-plants and cope with drought better. Therefore C4-plants have an advantage over C3-plants in a warm, dry climate. Examples of C4-plants are millet, amaranth and petty spurge. In the Nordic climate such species many occur in open, poorly competitive crops.
A dry fruit formed from two of more united carpels and dehiscing when ripe (usually by splitting into pieces or opening at summit by teeth or pores).
Plant that bears hibernating buds on persistent shoots near the ground.
Cultivation method used before Spanish colonisation in ancient Mexico. Small, rectangle-shaped areas (< 3000 m=) were created in wetlands. The soil was taken from canal excavations and bottom sediment, which were held in place by stockades. To maintain the very high soil fertility, nutrient-rich sediment material and organic mulch was added continually. The crops grown were maize, squash, amaranth, chilli, beans and flower. The latter were used for various Aztec ceremonies to worship the gods
Edge lined with hairs.
Having flowers which self-pollinate and never open fully or self-pollinate before opening.
A plant derived from the vegetative reproduction of a parent plant, with both plants having identical genetic constitutions.
A collective term for the "lower plants" which produce spores and do not have stamens, ovaries or seeds; literally plants whose sexual reproductive organs are not conspicuous. Typically includes the ferns, bryophytes and algae, and sometimes fungi (including lichenized fungi).
Plant with two cotyledons.
Range or variety of species
Refers to the amount of variation in a certain factor, e.g. light, temperature, moisture, an organism (e.g. a plant) can tolerate for survival (opposite to physiological amplitude).
From the Greek oikos house, home, and -logia science, study (compare economy = "husbandry"). The area of biology that refers to the interaction between an organism, e.g. a plant, and the environment in which it lives.
A limited part (large or small) of nature that we have decided for some reason to study as a whole. Consists of a living component (biotic) and a non-living component (abiotic) that is found within the system.
Modification of a species as a result of site influences on the genetic characteristics.
Species only present in a limited area where it is ínativeí.
Spread of seeds through being eaten by animals, particularly birds, and passing through the digestive tract.
Protective surface layer of cells on a plant.
Spread of seeds by animals or humans through attachment to e.g. fur or clothing.
Development / change in organisms to altered characteristics and adaptation (often to a higher, more specialised type).
Voluntary, optional. Opposite to obligate.
Measure of the reproductive ability or growth rate of a certain genotype (degree of adaptation to the particular habitat).
The plants occurring within an area or a period of time.
Species that can live in a broad spectrum of environments.
Stage from development of flower buds through flowering and seed formation until the seeds or fruit fall from the tree.
Variation due to gene mutation or recombination of genetic material
An individualís inherited genetic characteristics (intrinsic).
Plant with its overwintering shoot tips under the soil surface, e.g. bulb and tuber plants.
Small group of cells releasing or containing oil, resin, etc.
Hair that exudes or contains oils, resins, etc.
Genetically modified organism.
Monocotyledonous species belonging to the family Poaceae
Undried plant material.
Manuring through ploughing in a soil-improving crop (green manure crop).
One or multi-celled protrusion from the epidermis (outer surface tissue of the plant).
Plant that flowers and produces seed only once and then dies.
Dried, storable material of grassland plants for feed.
Plant that is benefited in some way by cultivation practices.
Plant that is directly hampered by cultivation practices.
Plant with shoot tips overwintering near the soil surface, e.g. most flowering plants and grasses.
Chemical weed control agent (Latin herba = plant and -cid = killer).
Organic material (e.g. detritus) that has undergone various stages of decomposition, the last stage being humus.
Cross between two species.
Part of the stem under the cotyledons, transitions into root.
Piece of stem between two nodes in plants where these are clearly apparent, e.g. grass and young shoots in several other plants.
Relationship between species.
Relationship within species.
Species that spreads and can establish in areas outside its original habitat and e.g. threaten biological diversity and human health and cause economic damage.
Species that forms a dense, low growing mat of vegetation from runners.
Plant species that spreads its seeds with the help of animals, e.g. greater celandine, cleavers.
Plant with one cotyledon.
Cultivation of a single plant species (crop) on a field.
Science of an organismís external appearance.
A natural, unpredictable change in genetic material that brings about an alteration in the characteristics of a plant or other organism. The alteration is often negative, leading to difficulties in survival. However it can sometimes lead to better adaptation and survival capacity.
Means ífungus rootí. Refers to interaction between fungus and plant roots that is of benefit to both organisms.
Plant that has established itself and can reproduce in a new area for that species.
Sweet liquid produced by glands that attracts insects to the flower.
Newcomer plant that spontaneously spreads in its new area, e.g. bindweed.
Plant species directly or indirectly introduced by man relatively recently, e.g. pineapple weed, false oatgrass, dwarf snapdragon.
Node (leaf knot)
Point of leaf attachment on a stem or straw.
A compulsory behaviour or method of existence. An obligate parasite is an organism that can only live parasitically. European dodder is an obligate parasite on another plant. Opposite facultative.
A protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.
An abbreviation of species (plural), often used to collectively refer to more than one species of the same genus, as in "Astragalus spp"
A conical or tubular outgrowth from the base of a perianth segment, often containing nectar.
A sharp, stiff point, usually a modified stem, that cannot be detached without tearing the subtending tissue; a spine. Compare prickle.
The development of plantlets on non-floral organs, e.g. leaves.